The SciVerse Scopus database and the JPE
WE ARE DELIGHTED to announce that the Journal of Pipeline Engineering has been accepted into the SciVerse Scopus database. Launched in November, 2004, this is the largest abstract and citation database world-wide, and contains both peer-reviewed research literature and high-quality web sources. With over 18,000 peer-reviewed journals from more than 5,000 international publishers, the database is widely referenced as offering researchers and librarians a rapid, easy, and comprehensive way of supporting their research needs in the scientific, technical, medical, and social sciences fields; the coverage has recently been extended to include the arts and humanities.
To be considered for inclusion in the database, journals and other publications are required to meet the following main eligibility criteria:
• the title should have peer-reviewed content
• the title should be published on a regular basis
• the content should be relevant and readable for an international audience (for example, having English-language abstracts and references in Roman script as a minimum)
• the title should have a publication-ethics and -malpractice statement
We are pleased that the Journal of Pipeline Engineering has been seen by the Content Selection and Advisory Board to meet these criteria.
The major Netherlands-based publishing company Elsevier, who manages SciVerse Scopus, says that the features and functionality of the database have been designed to support and improve researchers’ workflow, including:
• a simple interface, which is also available on iPhones and similar handsets;
• linking to full-text articles and other library resources;
• author identifier to automatically match an author’s published research;
• citation tracker to find, check, and track citations in real time;
• affiliation identifier to automatically identify and match an organization with all its research output;
• journal analyser to provide a quick insight into journal performance;
• alerts, RSS, and HTML feeds to stay up-to-date;
• document download manager to easily download and organize multiple full-text articles simultaneously;
• interoperability with other Scopus databases;
• data export via bibiliographic managers such as RefWorks, EndNote and BibTeX.
The database has been designed to help researchers and librarians to overcome many of the difficulties they have faced to date in easily accessing research and other published information. As Elesevier points out, researchers and others using the database can:
• find out who is citing whom, and how many citations an article or an author has received;
• analyse citations for a particular journal issue, volume, or year;
• use this information to complete grant or other applications quickly and easily;
• use the ‘refine results’ overview to quickly see the main journals, disciplines, and authors that publish in specific areas of interest;
• uncover important and relevant articles that may otherwise have been missed;
• check out the work and citations of other authors;
• follow the ‘cited by’ and ‘reference’ links to track research trends and make connections.
As can be understood from the above, the database is hugely extensive, and integrating the Journal of Pipeline Engineering’s published content into it will take a little while longer. However, this process is under way, and we hope that by the end of this year all the papers that the Journal has published will be visible via SciVerse Sciopus, to the benefit of the contributors and to the wider pipeline-engineering industry alike.
Third-party pips mechanical damage to the post
THE annually-published report by CONCAWE on the Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines once again highlights the fact that third-party activities remain the main case of spillage incidents, although an increase in mechanical failures has been seen in recent years. The report is based on confidential input from over 70 oil pipeline companies in Europe, and annually provides a useful indicator of trends. For 39 years the association has been collecting spillage data on European cross-country oil pipelines with particular regard to spillage volume, clean-up and recovery parameters, environmental consequences, and causes of the incidents.
The current report (for 2009) represents data from around 160 pipeline systems with a combined length of 34,643 km. The volume of oil and oil products transported by this system was around 872 Mcum, about 10% higher than 2008 which was unusually low; the total transported volume in 2009 was estimated at 125 x 109 cum-km.
Five spillage incidents are reported in 2009, corresponding to 0.14 spillages per 1000 km of pipeline, well below both the five-year average of 0.28 and the long-term running average of 0.53, which has been steadily decreasing over the years from a value of 1.2 in the mid-1970s. There were no reported fires, fatalities, or injuries connected with these spills. The gross spillage volume was 5476 cum, mostly as a result of a single large spill which occurred on a 40 in crude oil pipeline which ruptured 8 km downstream of the first pumping station, in a nature reserve. The origin of the rupture was not third-party activity but was found to be a fatigue crack on a pipe with a coating ‘roofing’ effect of 4.1 mm: it was subsequently found that the crack was between 3 and 4 mm deep and about 90 mm long, and the breach was approximately 2.7 m long, parallel with the seam weld. In the clean-up, 60,000 tons of polluted soil were excavated and sent directly to a biological treatment centre, and a hydraulic confinement system was installed in order to stop further migration of the pollution.
Of the five reported incidents in 2009, four were related to mechanical failures and one was connected to hitherto undetected third-party activities from the past. In this case, a concrete casing had been installed around a 34 in diameter crude oil the pipeline – probably by the local Port Authorities – about 40 years ago, and this was not known to the operator. Contact between the pipeline and a concrete-reinforcement bar caused external galvanic corrosion resulting in a pinhole and a leak of crude oil.
Despite the results from 2009 (the most recent year for which CONCAWE has provided data), over the long term third-party activities remain the main cause of spillage incidents although the number of events has progressively decreased over the years. Mechanical failure is the second largest cause of spillage, and the frequency of mechanical failures has been on an upward trend over the last decade.
The CONCAWE trend is generally echoed by the recent report on pipeline product loss incidents for 1962-2009 produced by the UK Onshore Pipeline Operator’s Association. The report contains data from the Association’s membership of 11 major-accident-hazard onshore pipeline operators, and shows that there were three incidents in 2009. In terms of trends, external corrosion slightly exceeds external interference for the period 2005-9, although in the period since 1962, external interference is the single greatest cause of failure.